Parkinson’s disease and Bacteriophages as its contributors

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We discovered striking alterations in the abundance of strictly lytic bacteriophages in patients with very early-stage Parkinson’s disease that most likely contributed to the disease onset.

Propagation of α-synucleinmisfolding Parkinson’s disease 

Tetz Laboratories was the first to identify various prion-like domains that have a strong capability to become prions in multiple bacteriophages, including those associated with the human microbiota. The involvement of these bacteriophage prion domains in cross-kingdom interactions with eukaryotic proteins and in α-synucleinmisfolding is currently under investigation by  Tetz Laboratories .

Phage-Induced Alterations in the Abundances of Lactococcus spp.Might Trigger Parkinson’s Disease

Tetz Laboratories revealed significant alterations in the abundances of certain bacteriophages in the phagobiota of patients with Parkinson’s disease. We identified shifts in the phage/bacteria ratio of Lactococcus spp.,which is a lactic acid bacterium that is known to produce dopamine and regulate intestinal permeability, which are major factors implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. Furthermore, we observed the depletion of Lactococcus spp. in the group with Parkinson’s disease, which was most likely caused byan increased abundance of lytic c2-like and 936-like lactococcal phages. Our findings add bacteriophages to the list of possible factors associated with the development of Parkinson’s disease, suggesting that the gut phagobiota composition may serve as a diagnostic tool as well as a target for therapeutic intervention.

Bacteriophages Induce Elevated Levels of PAMPs

We showed that bacteriophages can induce increased levels of plasma cell-free bacterial DNA and other PAMPs, such as lipopolysaccharides, peptidoglycan, and bacterial amyloid. These PAMPscan enter the blood circulation, leading to the establishment of chronic inflammation and an altered immune response, both of which are known to be associated with the development and progression of Parkinson’s disease.

The phage-induced increase in intestinal permeability

We discovered that certain bacteriophages increase intestinal permeability, facilitating the translocation of gut bacteria and leading to chronic inflammation and an altered immune response, both of which are conditions that are associated with Parkinson’s disease.

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