Jul 27, 2018
Parkinson’s Disease Pathogenesis may have a Bacterial Virus Component According to Research Conducted by Human Microbiology Institute
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Bacteriophages: Are they an overlooked driver of Parkinson’s disease?

The researchers, led by George, Tetz, M.D., Ph.D., Human Microbiology Institute, showed that the abundance of lytic Lactococcus phages was higher in PD patients when compared to healthy individuals. This abundance led to a 10-fold reduction in neurotransmitter-producing Lactococcus, suggesting the possible role of phages in neurodegeneration. Comparative analysis of the bacterial component also revealed significant decreases in Streptococcus spp. and Lactobacillus spp. in PD.

Lactococcus are regulators of gut permeability and are enteric dopamine producers, which plays a primary role in PD. “The depletion of lactococcus due to high numbers of strictly lytic phages in PD patients might be associated with PD development and directly linked to dopamine decrease as well as the development of gastrointestinal symptoms of PD,” said Dr. Tetz.

To explore bacterial and bacteriophage community compositions associated with PD, the researchers used shotgun metagenomics sequencing data of fecal microbiome from 32 patients with PD and 28 controls.

The results indicate that the decrease in Lactococci in the PD patients was due to the appearance of strictly lytic, virulent lactococcal phages belonging to the c2-like and 936 groups that are frequently isolated from dairy products. These results open a discussion on the role of environmental phages and phagobiota composition in health and disease.

“Bacteriophages have previously been overlooked as pathogenic factors, and the study points out their pivotal role in pathogenesis,” said Dr. Tetz. Future research is needed to explore bacterial viruses as a diagnostic and treatment target for therapeutic intervention.


ASM Microbe, the annual meeting of the American Society for Microbiology showcases the best microbial sciences in the world and provides a one-of-a-kind forum to explore the complete spectrum of microbiology. ASM Microbe is held in Atlanta, GA from June 7-11, 2018.

The American Society for Microbiology is the largest single life science society, composed of more than 30,000 scientists and hea

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Jun 01, 2017
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Bacteriophages are Potential New Human Pathogens

Human Microbiology Institute Research the First to Demonstrate that Bacteriophages Can Alter Gut Microbiome Causing Increased Gut Permeability, Which is Associated with Human Diseases Research Presented in an Oral Session at American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Microbe 2017

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Apr 18, 2018
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HMI’ bacteriophage research is in the Top 100 Scientific Reports Microbiology papers in 2017

NEW YORK, NY / ACCESSWIRE / April 18, 2018 /  ‘Bacteriophages as potential new mammalian pathogens’ has been selected as one of the top 100 read microbiology papers for Scientific Reports in 2017*, New York based HumanMicrobiology Institute (HMI) announced today. 

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Jun 13, 2018
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Bacteriophages: Are they an overlooked driver of Parkinson’s disease?

June 10, 2018 – Atlanta, GA – In the first study of its kind, researchers from the New York-based Human Microbiology Institute have discovered the role certain bacteriophages may play in the onset of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The research is presented at ASM Microbe, the annual meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, held from June 7th to June 11th in Atlanta, Georgia.

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