Jul 27, 2018
Parkinson’s Disease Pathogenesis may have a Bacterial Virus Component According to Research Conducted by Human Microbiology Institute
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Bacteriophages: Are they an overlooked driver of Parkinson’s disease?

The researchers, led by George, Tetz, M.D., Ph.D., Human Microbiology Institute, showed that the abundance of lytic Lactococcus phages was higher in PD patients when compared to healthy individuals. This abundance led to a 10-fold reduction in neurotransmitter-producing Lactococcus, suggesting the possible role of phages in neurodegeneration. Comparative analysis of the bacterial component also revealed significant decreases in Streptococcus spp. and Lactobacillus spp. in PD.

Lactococcus are regulators of gut permeability and are enteric dopamine producers, which plays a primary role in PD. “The depletion of lactococcus due to high numbers of strictly lytic phages in PD patients might be associated with PD development and directly linked to dopamine decrease as well as the development of gastrointestinal symptoms of PD,” said Dr. Tetz.

To explore bacterial and bacteriophage community compositions associated with PD, the researchers used shotgun metagenomics sequencing data of fecal microbiome from 32 patients with PD and 28 controls.

The results indicate that the decrease in Lactococci in the PD patients was due to the appearance of strictly lytic, virulent lactococcal phages belonging to the c2-like and 936 groups that are frequently isolated from dairy products. These results open a discussion on the role of environmental phages and phagobiota composition in health and disease.

“Bacteriophages have previously been overlooked as pathogenic factors, and the study points out their pivotal role in pathogenesis,” said Dr. Tetz. Future research is needed to explore bacterial viruses as a diagnostic and treatment target for therapeutic intervention.


ASM Microbe, the annual meeting of the American Society for Microbiology showcases the best microbial sciences in the world and provides a one-of-a-kind forum to explore the complete spectrum of microbiology. ASM Microbe is held in Atlanta, GA from June 7-11, 2018.

The American Society for Microbiology is the largest single life science society, composed of more than 30,000 scientists and hea

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Oct 02, 2018
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An interview with Dr. George Tetz, MD, Ph.D., discussing the discovery of the role of bacteriophages in nneurodegeneration is available online here

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Jul 14, 2017
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Viruses Called Bacteriophages Affect Bacteria in Mammal Gut Environment and May Cause Human Diseases, a Study from Human Microbiology Institute Reveals.

NEW YORK, NY, July 12, 2017 — Viruses called bacteriophages affect bacteria that populate mammal gut environment and may cause human diseases, according to the Human Microbiology Institute (HMI). The revolutionary findings were revealed today during an oral presentation at the largest European microbiologist gathering, FEMS-2017 in Spain.

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Oct 20, 2017
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NY Scientists First to Link Neurodegenerative Diseases and Bacterial Viruses

NEW YORK, NY / ACCESSWIRE / October 17, 2017 / Alzheimer’s and many other neurodegenerative diseases can be caused by bacteriophages – viruses that infect and replicate within gut microbiota of humans and other mammals, New York based HumanMicrobiology Institute (HMI) announced today. The groundbreaking research findings were reported during an Oral Presentation at the American Society for Microbiology’s gathering at the University of Connecticut. The research project was done in collaboration with NYU scientists and results were recently published in highly reputable Nature’s Scientific Reports.

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